Gzip or Deflate Compression
Provided by Leumas Naypoka / www.apphp.com
What is Gzip/Deflate compression and why do you need it?
Compression is a simple and effective way to save bandwidth and speed up your website. When a user hits your website
files, images etc. The bigger these files are the longer it's going to take for them to get to your browser. Also it takes
much more time to appear on your screen whether you work on stationary or mobile devices.
You may ask the question: why it is so important today, when bandwidth and connection are so high in the Internet. The answer is because it reduces the time it takes for a website to transfer the page files and CSS files which ultimately reduces the load time of your website, so your visitors will enjoy fast work even if they have a very slow Internet connection and your pages are too havy (more than 500-700Kb).
How does it work?
Gzip (or Deflate) compresses your webpages and CSS files before sending them to the browser. And as we said before this
operation drastically reduces transfer time since the files are much smaller. In terms of cost versus benefit, gzip
compression should be near the top of your page speed optimizations if you don't have it setup already.
Gzip is actually a very simple idea that has extremely power (when put to good use of course). Gzip locates similar strings within a text file (in our case this is commonly CSS and HTML codes) and replaces those strings temporarily with some placeholders to make the overall file size smaller.
The reason these compressions work so well in a web environment is because CSS files and HTML files use a lot of repeated text and have loads of whitespace. Since gzip compresses common strings, this can reduce the size of pages and style sheets by up to 70-80%! To make it works for you - Gzip has to be enabled on your webserver (it is relatively straight forward).
Standard HTTP Request and Response
Compressed HTTP Response
Some important details
The tricky part of this compressesion is that both browser and server knowing it's ok to send zipped files. The agreement has two parts:
The browser sends a header telling to the server it accepts compressed content
(gzip and deflate are two compression schemes):
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
The server sends a response to the browser if the content is actually compressed:
Setting up your server
The important thing you have to know is that we can't control the browser. It either sends the Accept-encoding:
gzip, deflate header or it doesn't.
Our job is to configure the server so it returns zipped content if the browser can handle it, saving bandwidth for everyone (and giving us more happy users).
For IIS, enable compression in the settings.
In Apache, enabling output compression is fairly straightforward. Add the following to your .htaccess file:
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/plain
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/html
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/xml
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/css
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/xml
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/xhtml+xml
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/rss+xml
# Or, compress certain file types by extension:
Apache actually has two compression options:
- mod_deflate is easier to set up and is standard
- mod_gzip seems more powerful: you can pre-compress content
If you can't change your .htaccess file, you can use PHP to return compressed content. Give your HTML file a .php extension and add this code to the top:
ob_start("ob_gzhandler"); else ob_start();
We check the "Accept-encoding" header and return a gzipped version of the file (otherwise the regular version). This is almost like building your own webserver (what fun!). But really, try to use Apache to compress your output if you can help it. You don't want to monkey with your files.
Verify Your Compression
Once you've configured your server, check to make sure you're actually serving up compressed content.
- Online: Use the online gzip test to check whether your page is compressed.
- In your browser: Use Web Developer Toolbar > Information > View Document Size to see whether the page is compressed.
- View the headers: Use Live HTTP Headers to examine the response. Look for a line that says "Content-encoding: gzip".